Vondroušová has won one singles title on the WTA Tour as well as seven singles and four doubles titles on the ITF Women's Circuit. In March 2018, she reached her best singles ranking of world No. 43 and was the youngest player in the top 100.
In January 2019, Vondroušová and partner Barbora Strycova reached the women's doubles semi-final of the Australian Open, but were defeated by Sam Stosur and Zhang Shuai. Vondroušová reached final in Budapest, where she lost to Alison Van Uytvanck.